Optical Waveguides: Numerical Modeling
 

Transfer-Matrix Method (TMM): Software

GratingMOD™

Commercial software sold by RSoft.

GratingMOD™ is a general design tool for analyzing and synthesizing complicated grating profiles in optical fibers and integrated waveguide circuits for a wide variety of photonic applications.

Capabilities:

  • The software is based on a implementation of the coupled mode theory algorithm for fast simulation as well as sophisticated multiple mode algorithms for advanced applications. Provides a general platform of simulation for various coupling mechanisms.
  • GratingMOD can handle various grating structures for both fiber and integrated waveguides.
  • Iterative Bragg Condition searching to find both the period from the specified modes and the modes from a specified period.
  • Sophisticated orthogonality relations for both lossless and lossy waveguide are included.
  • Optimal modes are used to reduce error.
  • Analytical mode calculations can be used when applicable.
  • An arbitrary number of gratings at arbitrary positions in both 2D and 3D structures can be used to study coupling mechanisms. Coupling mechanism includes fiber core coupling, fiber core to cladding coupling, long period fibers, as well as side coupling and vertical coupling for integrated circuits.
  • Multi-mode grating systems can be analyzed via a multi-mode coupled mode theory implementation.
  • An advanced synthesis tool utilizes a state-of-the-art synthesis technique based on Augmented Layer- Peeling to solve the 'inverse' problem.
  • Waveguide dispersion and material dispersion can be included.
  • Analysis features include:
    • Transmitted and reflected spectra for each mode
    • Calculation of phase
    • Calculation of dispersion
    • Calculation of time delay
    • Generation of mode profiles
    • Generation of apodization, chirp, and grating profiles
    • Automated calculation of bandwidth for primary order reflection
    • Spectrum analysis
    • Bragg condition analysis

Applications:

  • Dispersion compensation Fiber Bragg Grating
  • Multiplexing/Demultiplexing
  • Add/Drop filtering
  • Gain equalization in optical amplifiers
  • Tapered waveguide gratings
  • Grating assisted couplers
  • Multi-section grating circuits
  • Gratings with phase shifts
  • Surface relief and volume index gratings

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OptiGrating

Commercial software sold by Optiwave.

OptiGrating is a design software for modeling integrated and fiber optical devices that incorporate optical gratings. A complex grating is approximated by a sequence of uniform segments, and analyzed by connecting the segments with the transfer matrix method.

Capabilities:

  • Based on an implementation of the coupled-mode theory using the transfer matrix method
  • Arbitrary fiber/waveguide profile
  • Arbitrary grating profile including arbitrary apodization and chirp
  • Various calculation options in the spatial, spectral and time domains
  • Inverse Problem Solver: Construction of an unknown grating from the reflection spectrum
  • Material and mode dispersion: Refractive index definition by using the Sellmeier formula or an arbitrary formula. Both material and mode dispersions can be included in the calculations.
  • Parameter scanning module
  • Spectrum analysis tools, Group Delay tools: Calculation of the bandwidth, peak value and position, slope, sidelobe, ripple factor, delay spectrum.
  • Display including average index, period chirp and apodization in one graph, with 3D graphics for propagation calculations
  • For each device configuration, a mode solver provides a complete list of waveguide modes. Users can design the grating that assists coupling between selected modes and that has control over all device parameters.
  • Mode solver options include:
    • Single fiber with grating
    • Two fiber coupler with grating
    • Slab waveguide with grating
    • Two slab coupler with grating
    • User Defined
  • Fiber/Waveguide Profile Options:
    • Region editor: add, remove and move profile regions
    • Real and imaginary refractive index profile: constant, linear, parabolic, exponential, Gaussian, alpha peak, alpha dip or user-defined function
    • Photosensitivity profile: constant, linear, parabolic, exponential, Gaussian, alpha peak, alpha dip or user-defined.
    • Material dispersion: Sellmeier parameters or user-defined function
    • Import/export profile: import or export refractive index profile as an ASCII file
    • Visualization: display real, imaginary index or photosensitivity profiles

Applications:

  • WDM add/drop, narrow and broadband fiber
  • and waveguide filters
  • Fiber Bragg reflectors
  • EDFA gain flattening elements
  • Dispersion compensators for fiber communications
  • Sideband suppression using grating apodization
  • Fiber and waveguide sensors
  • Long Period Gratings with coupling to cladding modes

Publications:

  • C.-F. Chan et al., "Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts," Appl. Opt. 46, 1142 (2007).
  • T. Mizunami et al., "Fabrication and characterization of long-period-grating temperature sensors using GeB-co-doped photosensitive fibre and single-mode fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1467 (2004).

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TMM Mode Solver and Anisotropic TMM Mode Solver

Free codes developed by Henri Uranus (University of Twente).

TMM Mode Solver is a Matlab code that calculates mode indices and respective mode field and/or intensity profiles. Within this code, transfer matrix method is implemented.

Anisotropic TMM Mode Solver is a software used to find effective indices of guided modes for lossless planar optical waveguides with diagonal permitivity tensor using transfer matrix method. Can also be regarded as a Matlab function that can be called from the user's code.

Capabilities:

  • Calculates effective indices of guided modes
  • Calculates corresponding field and/or intensity profiles for planar optical waveguides
  • For multimode waveguide, beating pattern along the waveguide can be observed
  • Works for Matlab 5.3 or higher
  • Mainly for step index waveguides, but can also used for cosh^-2 graded index waveguides using stepwise approximation
  • TE and TM polarization supported
  • Can plot multimode interfered (superposed) intensity profiles

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WAVEGUIDE

Free software developed by the Southern Methodist University group.

WAVEGUIDE is a transfer-matrix based analysis tool that can be used to study a variety of optoelectronic devices.

Capabilities:

  • Various parameters can be calculated, including
    • Leaky modes or eigenmodes in a lossy material
    • Optical confinement factor in a specified layer
    • Waveguide coupling
    • Near filed
    • Far field
  • WAVEGUIDE is a Windows version software with a user-friendly interface
  • Mode finding
  • Propagation constant calculations

Applications:

  • Active or passive photonic devices
    • Directional Coupler
    • Multilayer waveguides
    • Lasers

Publications:

  • J. M. Hammer et al., "Integratable 40 dB optical waveguide isolators using a resonant-layer effect with mode coupling," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 103103 (2006).
  • J. M. Hammer et al., Isolators, Polarizers, and Other Optical Waveguide Devices Using a Resonant-Layer Effect, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1754 (2004).
  • D. P. Bour et al., "Design and Performance of Asymmetric Waveguide Nitride Laser Diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 184 (2000).
  • D. P. Bour et al., "Stripe-width dependence of threshold current for gain-guided AlGaInN laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 404 (1999).

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