Optical Waveguides: Numerical Modeling
 

Beam Propagation Method (BPM): Software

  • BeamPROP
  • OlympIOs BPM
  • OptiBPM
  • OptoDesigner
  • BeamPROP

    Commercial software sold by RSoft.

    BeamPROP is a modeling tool based on the beam propagation method for the design and simulation of integrated and fiber-optic waveguide devices and circuits. BeamPROP includes two fully functional mode solvers based on (1) the iterative method and (2) the correlation method. Both of these methods are based on the Beam Propagation Method (BPM).

    Simulation Technology and Capabilities:

    • Two- and three-dimensional waveguides can be modeled
    • Scalar, semi-vectorial, and vectorial implementation
    • Anisotropic materials can be modeled
    • Nonlinear effects can be included
    • Electrode and heater effects can be included
    • Polarization effects and coupling can be included via a fully-vectorial beam propagation method implementation
    • Wide-angle features: multistep Pade approximation technique, variable reference wavenumber, conformal index mapping of waveguide bends
    • Bidirectional beam propagation method formulation allows reflection along the propagation direction to be considered
    • Dirichlet and transparent boundary conditions (simple and full implementations) that can be applied at selected boundaries
    • Beam propagation method based mode solvers (more details in Mode Solvers Section)
    • Mode solvers capabilities include
      • Can solve for the propagating modes of a structure with an arbitrary two- or three-dimensional index cross section
      • Calculates mode spectrum
      • Mode profiles
      • Imaginary distance BPM method is faster; it is the default choice and is recommended for most standard waveguide problems
      • Correlation method is slower, but more general, e.g. it can be applied to problems that cannot be handled by the Imaginary distance BPM, such as antiguiding, leaky, lossy, or radiating modes, or when large numbers of modes need to be calculated.

    Applications:

    • WDM devices such as arrayed waveguide grating routers
    • Switches, e.g. directional coupler-based or digital-y type
    • Modulators, e.g. Mach-Zehnder type
    • Multimode interference devices
    • Passive 1xN or NxN splitters
    • Laser structure transverse mode analysis
    • Standard, specialty and photonic crystal fiber design
    • Gratings
    • Sensor structures

    Related publications:

    • I.-W. Hsieh et al., Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides, Opt. Express 14, 12380 (2006).
    • S. P. Chan et al., "Single-mode and polarization-independent silicon-on-insulator waveguides with small cross section," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2103 (2005).
    • V. R. Almeida et al., "Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure," Opt. Lett. 29, 1209 (2004).
    • N. M. Litchinitser et al., Application of an ARROW model for designing tunable photonic devices, Opt. Express 12, 1540-1550 (2004).
    • N. M. Litchinitser et al., Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1243-1251 (2003).
    • K. Abeeluck et al., "Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides," Opt. Express 10, 1320 (2002).
    • P. V. Studenkov et al., "Efficient coupling in integrated twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
    • R.S. Fan and R. B. Hooker, "Tapered polymer single-mode waveguides for mode transformation," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 466 (1999).
    • G.R. Hadley and R.E. Smith, "Full-vector waveguide modeling using an iterative finite-difference method with transparent boundary conditions," J. Quantum Electron. (1995).
    • S. Jungling and J.C. Chen, "A study and optimization of eigenmode calculations using the imaginary-distance beam-propagation method," J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2098 (1994).
    • D. Yevick and Witold Bardyszewski, "Correspondence of variational finite-difference (relaxation) and imaginary-distance propagation methods for modal analysis", Opt. Lett. 17, 329 (1992).
    • D. Yevick and B. Hermansson, "New formulations for the Beam Propagation Method: Application to Rib Waveguides," J. Quantum Electron. 25, 221 (1989).
    • M. D. Feit and J. A. Fleck, "Computation of Mode Properties in Optical Fiber Waveguides by a Propagating Beam Method," Appl. Opt. 19, 1154 (1980).

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    OlympIOs BPM

    Commercial software sold by C2V.

    The beam propagation method is one of the modules OlympIOs offers for simulating the propagation of light through planar waveguide structures.

    Simulation Technology and Capabilities:

    • Two- and three-dimensional simulations
    • Low to medium index contrast
    • Wide angle two-dimensional beam propagation method (2nd and 4th order Padé approximation)
    • Novel 5-point beam propagation method (less sensitive to lateral discretization)
    • Field analysis and manipulation capabilities
    • Second order non-linearity
    • Extensive optical element library
    • The library can be further extended to include user defined, custom elements (external elements)

    Applications:

    • Arrayed waveguide gratings
    • Switches
    • Waveguide sensors

    Related publications:

    • J. van Lith et al., "The Segmented Waveguide Sensor: Principle and Experiments," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 355 (2005).
    • M.-J. Tsai et al., "ARROW-based Coherently Coupled Bending Waveguides," Optical Communications Systems and Networks, OCSN, 473 (2005), www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.aspx?PaperID=20952

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    OptiBPM

    Commercial software sold by Optiwave.

    OptiBPM is a comprehensive CAD environment based on the beam propagation method used for the design of complex optical waveguides.

    Simulation Technology and Capabilities:

    • Two- and three-dimensional waveguide devices
    • Two-dimensional beam propagation method simulator is based on the unconditionally stable Crank-Nicolson algorithm
    • Choice between TE and TM polarization
    • Padé approximants up to (4,4)
    • Transparent boundary condition and Perfectly Matched Layer boundary condition
    • New algorithm based on the finite element method
    • The full 3D beam propagation method simulator is based on:
      • The alternating direction implicit scheme
      • Scalar algorithms
      • Semi-vector algorithms giving a choice between quasi-TE and quasi-TM polarization
      • Full-vector algorithms governing both transverse field components
    • Mode solvers compatible with the two and three-dimensional beam propagation method algorithms
    • Mode solvers employ the transfer matrix method in two-dimensional for multi-layer planar structures and the alternating direction implicit method in three-dimensional
    • OptiBPM includes powerful integration capabilities with the communication system software, OptiSystem

    Applications:

    • Waveguides integrated on a substrate:
      • Channel waveguides
      • Rib or ridge waveguides
      • Buried waveguides
      • Waveguides from a diffused process
    • Splitters, combiners, couplers, modulators, multiplexers, and arrayed waveguide gratings
    • Models on both the device scale and (with OptiSystem) on the photonic circuit scale
    • Optical fiber based devices

    Related publications:

    • H. Hamada, "Preparation of a planar multimode interference coupler with a graded-index profile using polysilane with photobleaching properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 1666 (2006).
    • T. J. Clement et al., Nanocluster sensitized erbium-doped silicon monoxide waveguides, Opt. Express 14, 12151 (2006).
    • N. Ponnampalam et al., Small core rib waveguides with embedded gratings in As2Se3 glass, Opt. Express 12, 6270 (2004).
    • E. Chmielewska and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements and modeling of modal birefringence and sensitivity to strain in a three-mode elliptical-core fiber," Opt. Eng. 43, 305 (2004).
    • B. Chen et al., "Optimized design of polarization-independent and temperature-insensitive broadband optical waveguide coupler by use of fluorinated polyimide," Appl. Opt. 42, 4196 (2003).

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    OptoDesigner

    Commercial software sold by PhoeniX.

    OptoDesigner is a unidirectional beam propagation method for two dimensional problems.

    Simulation Technology and Capabilities:

    • TE and TM modes up to Pade (3,3)
    • PML and transparent boundary conditions
    • Wide-angle beam propagation method
    • Zone technology for any-angle simulations
    • Real and complex refractive indexes

    Applications:

    • Planar wavegudes
    • Optical telecom devices:
      • Arrayed waveguide gratings
      • Modulators
    • Sensing applications:
      • Mach-Zehnder inteferometers

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